Out of this effort came major breakthroughs, notably in the health and physical sciences. Soon, however, the nation's hopes could turn toward peaceful uses of this vast new potential of energy, and primarily they would turn toward the universities. For the University in those years, there were many measures of greatness. By , it ranked second only to Harvard University in membership in the National Academy of Sciences; and a few years later, it would occupy first place.
The library at Berkeley, although sixth in size, ranked third best in the nation for the quality of its collections, with only the Library of Congress and Harvard Library leading. The UCLA library, one of the youngest in the country, was also one of the most rapidly growing, having passed the one-million mark in Physical development of the campuses, which had lagged during the depression and been further delayed by war, would boom during the 's and 's.
It had to, for the University anticipated an immediate peak in the form of huge veteran enrollments and a subsequent period of sustained growth. Between and , the University acquired the Santa Barbara campus and developed liberal arts colleges at Davis and Riverside. The Medical School at Los Angeles was begun in that period. Meanwhile, graduate programs were expanding rapidly and there was great demand for postdoctoral training in the medical and physical sciences.
In California and throughout the nation, a new tide was running in student demand for college admission. At the beginning of Sproul's long Presidency, new state and junior colleges had started springing up everywhere. Each session of the California legislature brought greater pressure and competition for new campuses and budgets. President Sproul recognized that, unless means could be found for their orderly development, the institutions of public higher education faced a potentially disastrous course of competition.
He saw this as a national problem but one that held particular urgency for rapidly growing California. In , he had persuaded the Regents and the legislature to provide matching funds for a study by the Carnegie Institute. The result was one of three studies. Robert Gordon Sproul retired in As President Emeritus of the University, he makes his office in a building named in his honor.
He was succeeded by Clark Kerr, formerly Chancellor at Berkeley. By , the University had 44, students and foresaw that its enrollment would rise to almost , by A modest projection, as later became apparent. Facilities would need to be tripled in that period. The problem might have daunted California--soon to become the most populous state--had there not been early recognition of the need for planning.
In , the legislature requested the Liaison Committee of the Regents and the California State Board of Education to develop a long-range plan. A survey team under the direction of the two boards produced the Master Plan. This was approved in principle by the Regents and the state board in December, A special session of the legislature passed the Donahoe Higher Education Act, incorporating most of the Master Plan recommendations, and approved other legislation to implement the plan.
Thus the state was able to move forward with expansion of all segments of public higher education without wasteful duplication. In order to provide for new campuses and enlargement of others, the public generously voted large construction bond issues in , , , and again in Under the plan, the University continued to meet its traditional obligations: university-level instruction and professional teaching, research, and public service.
New admission standards were introduced in under which the top The plan provided for the University's lower division enrollment to be somewhat decreased relative to upper and graduate division enrollments. Certain lower division curricula were abolished, since increasing numbers of students would do their lower division work at junior colleges.
The University and the state colleges established a joint Graduate Board to develop procedures for a cooperative doctoral program and the awarding of joint doctorates in selected fields. By , UC's enrollment was almost 50, Its seven campuses and many research stations were spread across thousands of acres.
As a complement to sheer size, however, the University now offered an enviable diversity of academic and cultural fare and opportunities for research that could be matched by few other institutions. President Kerr's approach to mass education was to decentralize administrative authority to the campuses and, in academic planning, to the extent possible, make the large seem small and personal. The Regents early adopted his recommendation for a major administrative reorganization under which much of the daily operating responsibility for the campuses was decentralized to the chief campus officers.
Throughout the first half of the 's, decentralization continued by stages, resulting in a substantial reduction of the University-wide administrative staff and a greater autonomy for the campuses.
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In , the Regents adopted a University Academic Plan outlining the needs of the foreseeable future and emphasizing the theme of unity with diversity. There would be established in the next few years a new law school at Davis, engineering programs at Davis and Santa Barbara, medical schools at San Diego and Davis, architecture and urban planning at Los Angeles, and expanded medical enrollments at San Francisco and Los Angeles. New general campuses at San Diego, Irvine, and Santa Cruz offered University planners a rare opportunity for innovation and experiment.
As the first campuses to be designed from the start with a view to eventual huge enrollments, they were encouraged to evolve along lines that would foster individuality yet at the same time meet the University's traditional standards of excellence. Irvine, located in the most rapidly growing county in California, would emphasize the relation of campus to environment by offering strong programs in urban planning and environmental design.
And, keeping in mind enrollments by the year when , students would be attending the University--the administration was planning potential future campuses. Ten new schools or colleges were created, 80 new programs leading to master's degrees, and 68 to the doctoral degree. The Regents approved an important long-range plan guaranteeing access to outstanding research libraries for the new and smaller campuses. Berkeley and Los Angeles continued to develop their collections as primary research sources, while their catalog cards were given University-wide distribution.
Vehicles began plying daily between small and large campuses to facilitate intercampus borrowing. This plan encouraged the smaller campuses, in addition to building up their basic libraries, to acquire collections unique within the University. Substantial economies were achieved by having the San Diego campus buy and catalog books, not only for its own new undergraduate library but, simultaneously, for those of Santa Cruz and Irvine.
Between and , the University's instructional staff increased from 4, to 5, and every campus now claimed its share of luminaries. Both faculty and students were reflecting credit on their institution with a growing roster of honors. Six more scientists received the Nobel Prize, bringing the University's total to Twenty-nine members were elected to the National Academy of Sciences, for a total membership of Guggenheim Fellowships won by the faculty in that period totaled Meanwhile, scholars were finding new opportunities for the development of special interests in the humanities.
The first overseas center was set up at the University of Bordeaux in In the early 's, the Regents created a special scholarship program for outstanding students needing financial aid, and made available a number of tuition scholarships for exceptional students from other countries, thus supplementing programs that had been supported for many years by alumni and the state. The Regents also provided matching funds to campuses undertaking Special Opportunity Programs designed to encourage qualified high school students from disadvantaged backgrounds to attend the University.
During this period, the University accelerated and broadened its services to the people and government of California. Special institutes of governmental and public affairs at Berkeley, Los Angeles, and Davis were conducting research on metropolitan, state, and regional problems. The exciting potential of cybernetics was explored on several campuses. University scientists continued to work toward solutions to such problems as smog control, water conservation and the desalinization of sea water, traffic and airport safety, sewage disposal, forestry conservation, and the assurance of adequate food for a growing population.
A high proportion of the state's lawyers, dentists, and doctors were availing themselves of programs offered by Continuing Education of the Bar and Continuing Education in Medicine and the Health Sciences. Engineers, scientists, teachers, and businessmen--the majority holding at least one degree, and many with a master's or a doctorate--were returning to the classroom at intervals throughout their careers.
Few California homes, professions, industries, farms, or human lives were not in some way served by the University. Though an institution still less than a century of age, its impact upon society had become immense. Berkeley named by Frederick Billings. Haight, March California Pharmaceutical Society affiliated with the University. First Commencement held at Berkeley. Reid became President of the University upon LeConte's resignation. Los Angeles State Normal School established. College of Dentistry established in San Francisco. Holden elected President of the University upon Reid's resignation.
Medical Department and Colleges of Pharmacy and Dentistry moved from privately owned buildings in downtown San Francisco to buildings on Parnassus Heights present site of the San Francisco campus. Phoebe Apperson Hearst. Scripps; made part of the University in Training School for Nurses established at San Francisco.
University Hospital began operation. Extension Division established. Department of Agriculture. School of Education organized at Berkeley. Los Angeles State Normal School became Southern Branch of the University of California; Ernest Carroll Moore named first director title changed to vice-president and director in , to vice-president and provost in College of Letters and Science established at Los Angeles.
Davis campus taken over by the Army Signal Corps Phelps named first provost. Harold Williams named provost at Santa Barbara. Dykstra named vice-president and provost of the University Los Angeles. Watkins named first provost at Riverside, five years prior to opening of the College of Letters and Science. School of Veterinary Medicine opened at Davis. Raymond B. Allen named chancellor at. Stanley B. Freeborn named first provost at Davis; title changed to chancellor in Santa Barbara campus moved to Goleta site.
Herbert C. Moffitt Hospital opened in San Francisco. Spieth named provost of the Riverside campus; title changed to chancellor in Elmer R. Nobel named acting-provost at Santa Barbara; title changed to vice-chancellor and acting chief campus officer in Glenn T. Seaborg named chancellor at Berkeley. John B. Saunders named first provost at San Francisco; title changed to chancellor in School of Dentistry established at Los Angeles. Knudsen named chancellor at Los Angeles.
Emil M. Mrak named chancellor at Davis; Regents declared Davis a general campus of the University. Gould named first chancellor at Santa Barbara. Riverside named a general campus of the University. Site on the Irvine Ranch in Orange county tentatively selected for new campus of the University. College of Environmental Design established at Berkeley. College of Agriculture established at Riverside. The Irvine Company offered 1, acres as a gift to the University for site of new campus; deed recorded, January 20, Strong named chancellor at Berkeley. Herbert F. York named first chancellor at San Diego.
Dean E. McHenry named first chancellor at Santa Cruz. Cowell Ranch property at Santa Cruz designated by the Regents as the south central coast site for a general campus of the University. College of Fine Arts established at Los Angeles. Daniel C. Aldrich, Jr. College of Engineering established at Davis. John S. Galbraith named chancellor at San Diego; San Diego campus commenced undergraduate instruction; School of Medicine at San Diego began organization, with plans to accept first students in the fall of School of Law established at Davis, with the first students to be admitted, fall, Graduate Divisions established at Santa Cruz and Irvine.
Heyns named chancellor at Berkeley. Irvine campus opened; first student-faculty convocation held in Campus Hall, September Cowell College began instruction at Santa Cruz. Establishment of a School of Medicine authorized for the Davis campus. With the advance of science in the nineteenth century emerged the modern university. Lehrfreiheit and Lernfreiheit, freedom of teaching and of learning, quickened the work and life of the German universities. These freedoms meant, for the professor, freedom of teaching, inquiry and publication--conditions considered both unique and essential to the work of the scholar.
For the student, they meant freedom from both administrative conditions governing class work and from institutional restrictions on his private life. To their professorial chairs in America, many young scholars brought from German universities both their doctor of philosophy degrees and an appreciation of the idea of academic freedom. In America, Lernfreiheit meant essentially the elective system and Lehrfreiheit meant the beginning of a long and some-what disruptive effort to secure the scholarly freedom implied in the term.
Tenure and greater faculty self-government were considered necessary first principles. The University of California was not untouched by this time of tension and experienced its share of institutional turmoil as the idea of academic freedom took hold in American colleges and universities. In the later years of Benjamin Ide Wheeler's presidency , his health began to fail. During these same years, World War I broke out and charges of disloyalty to the allied effort cost some University faculty members their jobs and impaired the prestige of Wheeler himself.
In April, , the Regents gave to a Council of Deans, composed of three prominent faculty members, many of the powers of the ailing Wheeler. The new triumvirate also known as the Administrative Board lacked Wheeler's administrative skill and were confronted by difficult University problems. The University was feeling the pinch of war-time economies and the faculty was becoming increasingly restive about arbitrary administration and inequities resulting from promotion and salary practices.
In the midst of the administrative confusion and internal dissension that characterized the reign of the Council of Deans, the faculty sought a stronger role in University government. They used the advisory powers of the Academic Senate to secure from the Regents greater responsibility in the appointment, promotion, and dismissal of colleagues; in the determination of educational policy; in the formulation of the budget; and in the internal conduct of the Academic Senate. Academic freedom was the topic of David P. Barrows' in augural address in , but the first statement on academic freedom to have force as University policy was made by President Robert Gordon Sproul before the Northern Section of the Academic Senate, August 27, It affirms the University's faith in intelligence and knowledge and its obligation to ensure the conditions for their free exercise.
Impartiality and competence founded in the empiricist credo has qualified academic freedom in the University and typified it in America. Tenure--the right of a professor to his position except for good cause and with dismissal only after a hearing by a committee of his peers--was not recognized in the standing orders of the Regents until They reflect the ever-changing idea of freedom itself as it seeks definition, stability, and support in America's institutions of higher learning.
No one can predict its path, though one can observe the extension of both Lehrfreiheit and Lernfreiheit in the context of the more permissive American norm and as a stronger reflection of deep sympathy and concern for freedom of speech. Hofstadter and W. The chief executive of the University is its President.
He reports to the Regents and has full authority and responsibility for the administration of academic and student affairs of the University. He also administers such business and fiscal operations as are not specifically the responsibility of the secretary, treasurer, or general counsel of the Regents. The functional divisions of the University administration, such as academic planning, business and finance, and physical planning, are directed by such vice-presidents as may be named by the Regents on the recommendation of the President.
There were nine vice-presidents of the University in February, Some other specialized activities, such as University of California Extension and the Agricultural Sciences, are directed by deans. There were four such deans in February, All of these officers report to the President. The campuses of the University are administered under the direction of chancellors, who also report to the President.
To these officers, the President has, over recent years, delegated increasing authority. At the campus level, there has been considerable redelegation of authority to college deans and department chairmen. Coordination of administrative activity is made possible by monthly meetings of a council of chief campus officers--the Council of Chancellors--and meetings of the chief University-wide officers--the President's cabinet. Matters involving faculty appointments and promotions, educational policy, faculty welfare, and privilege and tenure are traditionally referred by the President to committees of the Academic Senate for advice.
President Clark Kerr instituted the practice of meeting frequently with such committees in person. Their committees routinely decided day-to-day administrative questions. Their secretary was often also secretary of the Academic Senate and business manager of the University. In these capacities he met regularly with the Regents' Committee on Internal Affairs and held authority that was in many regards superior to that of the President. In those matters, the second-in-command was a dean of the faculty.
The first such dean was appointed by the Regents in After he was dismissed in , the position was filled by the members of the Academic Senate in annual election. In , both the concept and the title of the office was changed. It was finally abandoned in and thereafter until the President of the University kept in touch with academic affairs through direct conferences with the deans of the academic colleges. Beginning in , an effort was made to distinguish more clearly between the policy functions of the Regents and the administrative responsibilities of the President.
For a brief interlude beginning in April, and ending with the appointment of David P. Barrows as President in , the University was administered by a Council of Deans also known as the Administrative Board. The members of the council, Charles Mills Gayley, Henry Morse Stephens, and William Carey Jones, served initially as advisors to the ailing President Wheeler but gradually were given full executive authority. Hart, the incumbent dean of the University, was given the additional appointment of the first of these vice-presidencies.
Due to a series of events beginning in , these titles were numerous. In that year, the Regents created the position of comptroller to assume responsibility for that part of the secretary and land agent's duties involving finances and business management. Ralph Merritt was the first person to hold this new position. In , when the Regents' secretary and land agent, Victor Henderson, went into military service, the functions of his office were again combined with those of the comptroller.
After Merritt resigned from the University in , Sproul succeeded him and inherited all of his titles and functions. In , therefore, Sproul's titles were vice-president, comptroller, secretary of the Regents and land agent. He became President of the University in July, In the same year that Sproul became President, the office of comptroller was once again separated from that of the secretary and land agent and the University's internal business management was separated from the management of the Regents' investments.
In the beginning, of course, all administrative activities of the University were carried on in Berkeley. When the professional schools developed in San Francisco, their deans reported directly to the President. When the University Farm was established at Davis, a local director later assistant dean reported to the dean of the College of Agriculture at Berkeley, as did the director of the Citrus Experiment Station at Riverside.
In July, , the two vice-presidencies created in were superseded by two new ones to be filled upon the President's recommendation and to have such duties as the President determined. One of the positions was filled by Monroe E. Deutsch, who held the additional title of dean of the University. The other vice-presidency was filled by Ernest C. Moore, who had played an important role in the transformation of the Los Angeles State Normal School into a campus of the University. Vice-President Moore also held the title of director, Los Angeles. In , Dr. Earle Hedrick retired as vice-president and provost of the University at Los Angeles.
For the next three years, that campus was administered by a committee of three persons and the President. The first provost to assume the new authority at Los Angeles was Clarence Dykstra, in In , he was given the additional title of vice-president of the University. In January, , the President announced delegation of authority comparable to that of the provost at Los Angeles to the provost resident on the Berkeley campus.
However, the office of the provost at Berkeley was not separated physically from that of the President. Phelps, was appointed as its chief officer. The building of a College of Letters and Science at Riverside was begun with the appointment, in , of a provost to direct its development. Administrative authority remained largely undelegated and was concentrated in the Regents, the President, and the comptroller throughout the 's.
For example, the Regents adopted a line-item budget, and all modifications or amendments required Board approval. In addition, business management, accounting, non-academic personnel, admissions, public information, and many other activities on each campus were directed by University-wide officials and were outside the jurisdiction of chief campus officers.
With the retirement of the Berkeley provost in , further centralization occurred when the President reassumed direct administrative control over the Berkeley campus. He carried this responsibility for the next five years. By the end of World War II, the University's administrative organization had been shaped by a series of adjustments to growth and the unique problems of geographically dispersed operations.
The work of the President had become impossibly burdensome. The firm set forth two controlling principles: 1 there must be unity in the University system; 2 there must be decentralization in University operations to the maximum extent compatible with unity. The firm then made specific recommendations for administrative changes. To relieve the burdens of the Presidency, the Regents authorized the appointment of an executive vice-president in but the position was never filled.
On March 30, , the first steps toward effective decentralization were taken. They were authorized to nominate all candidates for faculty and other positions and, on April 22, , the President directed that all department chairmen were responsible to their local chief campus officer through their deans and directors. The chief campus officers were also given increasing direction over campus business operations--excepting physical planning, building construction, and purchasing.
Between and , the Regents also gave the President more discretion in budget procedures and authorized him to transfer funds within budgetary totals. In January, , the President redelegated much of this authority to chief campus officers. The Regents also began to delegate administrative responsibility involving academic personnel. For instance, they decided to act directly only on appointments and promotions of faculty members to tenure rank. At the same time, the practice of including a list of all faculty members and their salaries in the annual budget document was discontinued.
Pursuant to these proposed changes, the vice-president--business affairs and the controller were placed under the jurisdiction of the President. In , Harry R. Wellman was appointed vice-president of the University, giving the institution, for the first time, an officer who was, in all respects, second in command.
In the same reorganization, several University-wide officers were redesignated as vice-presidents or University deans with responsibilities for major functional divisions of the administration. The administration of the University continues to be under almost constant study. The firm of Cresap, McCormick and Paget, which submitted the master report that led to extensive changes from to the present, has undertaken 16 follow-up studies on specific administrative problems and programs.
Some of these have resulted in the introduction of improved techniques and the use of modern equipment and procedures to obtain savings in administrative expenditures. There has also been intensive study by the University's staff. In May, , the President presented to the Regents the first of a series of reports that would, if implemented, result in still more major reorganization.
The three assumptions of the reports were:. Specific proposals involve greater delegation of authority from the Regents to the administration, increased delegation of authority to the campuses, and increased delegation of authority on the campuses to deans and department chairmen. As the Regents delegated more authority to the President, he has redelegated considerable amounts of it to the chancellors of the various campuses.
In , the accounting and non-academic personnel offices were decentralized. Before March, , per cent of all transfers of funds required University-wide processing. After that time, 80 per cent of such transfers could be made at the campus level. In , local campuses were given authority for administration of offices of admission, educational placement, architects and engineers, and purchasing.
In , chancellors were given authority over campus publications and graduate divisions. Beginning in , the dollar level on proposals for research grants and contracts that could be negotiated by the President without Regental concurrence began to be increased. The President, in turn, delegated authority to solicit contracts and grants to the chancellors.
The effect was to reduce substantially the number of grants and contracts that had to be processed at the University-wide level. In , the chancellors also were given authority to make tenure appointments and promotions of faculty members and were authorized to approve all in-scale merit salary increases.
They also were authorized to award and execute construction contracts for their campuses and to appoint architects. As the University of California continues to grow, its administration remains subject to review so that maximum efficiency with the least possible expense can be realized. Most significantly he was charged with being the "President of the several faculties and the executive head of the institution in all its departments. While studying for the ministry at the Yale Theological Seminary, he tutored at the university.
He was ordained pastor of the Byfield, Massachusetts, Congregational Church in , and, in that same year, married Mary E. Buffett of Stanwich, Connecticut. After 16 years in the ministry, he resigned his pastorate to become head of the Dummer Academy at Byfield, a position which he held from When California was admitted to the Union in , Durant became absorbed in ideas for the development of higher education in the new land.
His decision to come west may have been hastened by the death of his daughter. Encouraged by his fellow clergymen at this meeting, he rented a house in the young community of Oakland on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, and on June 6, opened the Contra Costa Academy as a private school for boys. In , the College of California offered to disincorporate and give the state its lands and properties in order that the state's resources for higher education could be combined into a true university. When this offer was accepted by the state, it was implemented by a report prepared by a committee of which Durant was a member.
He undertook the office with zest, but as his 70th birthday approached in the summer of , he observed that the upbuilding of the new university required the energies of a younger man and resigned his position. Following his resignation, he engaged in real estate enterprises. He was elected mayor of Oakland and while serving in this office died suddenly on January 22, Durant left no writings. His contribution was the unceasing effort which brought into existence the College of California and the University of California. His ancestry was Welsh on both sides, his father's family having come to America in , his mother's in He attended Norwich Academy and Yale University, graduating in While in Europe, he became interested in the rise of scientific and technical institutions of learning as opposed to classical universities.
Gilman spent the next 16 years at Yale, first as librarian, then as professor of physical geography and secretary to the governing board of the Sheffield Scientific School. He declined offers of a presidency from the University of Wisconsin in and from the University of California in However, discord developed between the "old Yale" element which wished to maintain the classical curriculum, and the "young Yale" group, which hoped to secure Gilman's appointment as president of Yale, and which would introduce more science and stronger lay influence in Yale's government.
Personal matters also intervened. His wife, Mary Ketchum of Norwich, whom he married in , died in leaving two little daughters. The younger of these became ill, and a milder climate was prescribed for her benefit.
Accordingly, when a second offer of the Presidency was made by the University of California in September, , Gilman accepted. The University was still in temporary quarters in Oakland when Gilman arrived. One building was under construction at Berkeley, but funds had failed to materialize for a second one that was planned. Gilman at once sought out leaders in the community, formed the Berkeley Club to cement "town and gown" relationships, obtained financing for a second building, and whenever possible, gave addresses to arouse interest in the University.
On December 1, , 14 months after his arrival, he could report not only the establishment of the University on its permanent campus, but the beginning of instruction in science and engineering, formerly largely theoretical, and the bestowal of a number of important private gifts. Among these were the endowed Toland Medical College in San Francisco, an endowment for a professorship in Oriental languages, ten additional acres of land for the Berkeley campus, and funds for the purchase of books for the library.
The following year, criticism of the management of the University and its funds was made by organized agricultural interests within the state. Although a legislative committee justified the administration of the University and most of the criticism was counteracted, the episode distressed Gilman. When he was offered the presidency of the newly established Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, he accepted and resigned from the University of California in March, In an editorial, the Overland Monthly of San Francisco called him "a man of surpassing talent for organization, of extraordinary insight and sympathy as to the strong and weak points of colleges and students, who can do more with poor material than most men can do with good.
He retired from Johns Hopkins in and was persuaded by Andrew Carnegie to undertake the presidency and organization of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. He retired from this position in December, and died in Norwich, October 13, survived by his daughters and his second wife, Elizabeth Dwight Woolsey, whom he married in His father maintained a chemical laboratory, a botanical garden, and a scientific library on his plantation and trained his children in natural history and science. He received the M.
He preferred teaching to medicine, however, and in became professor of physics and chemistry at Franklin College. In , he accepted the position of professor of chemistry in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, but resigned after a year to teach physics, which he preferred, in South Carolina College later the University of South Carolina. Someone had picked me up and brought me home. I still don't really remem- ber what happened but that's what we figured out," he added. Jeff has multiple sclerosis — a disease which causes a degenera- tion of the nervous system.
But that does not stand in his way. Dean Stopinski has nicknamed Jeff "the notdogger" for the fast way he travels around campus. Even though Jeff finds writing papers a problem, he manages to keep his grade point average at 2. He graduated from Nashville Overton in in the top 10 of his class. An avid Blue Raider fan, Jeff attends all the home games and some of the road games.
But he has a cousin who plays football at UT Martin and another who wrestles for UT Chattanooga, so his sympathies are divided at times. When he isn't going to sports events, Jeff enjoys going to mov- ies and to concerts. Although Jeff is a pretty inde- pendent fellow, he couldn't get along without his roommate Chuck Norris, whom he has known for seven years. Chuck helps Jeff get dressed and keep up with paying bills and cooking.
Other than getting wet when it rains and trouble moving when it's snowy and icy, Jeff doesn't have any real problems in school. He goes to the Wesley Founda- tion once a week to eat and the geople especially the girls, Dean topinski emphasized there help with getting books and research done in the library. Shewmake associate dean of stu- dents — men said that most handicapped students are good students. Like most of us, he isn't really sure.
I don't know, just anything to help people. I know you aren't supposed to be here, but you know how small a Volkswagen is. It's hard to get comfortable in there. What the hell do you think this is — a half-night motel or something? Yeah I know, I know. Just have her out by morning. Do you mean to tell me that you have to sleep in here? I'd rather go back to the Volkswagen. It's just aoout the same size. University Police. Give me your I. Both of you report to the dean tomorrow. We'll take this for evidence. I told you that the Volkswagen was okay.
You see, we have been assigned to differentiated housing due to trie State Board of Regents. You see freshmen and sophomores are assigned to either A, B or C type housing. Dorms that are "A" differentiated are usually known as the "Virgin Vaults. Depress- ing isn't it? Friends of the opposite sex may come into the lobby, but that's it.
Dorms that are "C" differentiated per- mit visitation two nights a week for a total of twelve hours. This isn't so bad, but I have heard dorm directors say, "don't do anything you can't get stopped by the time the master key is in the door. In accordance with campus regulations, when someone visits you they must be wearing clothes suitable for street wear. Now what exactly is that? I mean, a flasher dresses suitable for the street, but when he opens his coat, it's a different pic- ture.
Then there's signing in and out of the dorm. It's a waste of our time and the uni- versity's money. I cannot understand why the university requires it. Maybe it's like one guy said, "they make you sign a girl in and out so if she comes up pregnant and the father tries to squirm his way out of it, Housing can go back and find out who she was with on mat night. Then there's the problem of getting roommates out of the room.
What happens when all three roommates want to be in the room alone with their partners? You have one of two choices The administration would probably call this an orgy, but we'll call it having a "good time. I am just a student. Bugs, not in my room? In the past few years, body building has grown from an ooscure activity practiced by relatively few to a sport that is growing at momentum.
At MSTU a group of young men train almost every day to achieve something. Whether that something is body perfec- tion, increased strength or improved sports perform- ance, these men are "pumping Iron. Stan Murphy, a senior from Lewisburg who also works hard at building his body, feels body building is an unconscious desire to reach total perfection.
Jeff Preston, a MTSU student from Gallatin who's also an "iron pumper," points out body building is unlike team sports, where there's help from players and coaches. In body building one has to oe the trainer, coach and team; and he wins by himself. Body building on a competitive level is divided into three areas: Olympic lifting, power lifting and the physique contest.
Olympic lifting is made up of three events — the snatch, clean and jerk and the press. Power lifting includes the dead lift, the bench press and the squat. In the physique contest where body builders compete for titles such as Mr. Tennessee, Mr. America and Mr. World, criteria for judging is usually done on the basis of symmetry, propor- tion and size differentiation.
Jeff Preston explained one is judged on biceps, deltoids and other muscles and the way they are defined from one another. Michael Whittaker's goal is to be Mr. Tennessee and to move to greater things. He stresses it is essential that body builders set certain goals or training will most likely be futile. Jeff Preston has competed in only two physique contests and much to his chagrin, was unsuccessful. It made me even more determined to improve my body. Next time, I'll be in even better shape. Jeff Preston trains six days a week while Stan Murphy trains four days a week, running on alternate days.
If not running, Murphy skips rope ana lifts weights. Murphy also trains with Whittaker, who believes having a partner to work out with gives one a better competitive edge. Stan Murphy, a senior from Lewis- burg. Diet also plays an impor- tant role in the body build- er's regimen. Stan Murphy- eats a huge breakfast, hght lunch and heavy supper. For breakfast he usually will have four to six eggs, bacon, sausage, grits, juice and milk. He has a problem keep- ing his weight up which is why his caloric intake is so high. Michael Whittaker has trouble keeping his weight down so he maintains a low intake of carbohydrates.
Jeff Preston, who does not have any real problems with his weight is on a high pro- tein kick. He starts his day with a high protein shake made from six eggs, eight ounces of milk and one pack- age of Carnation instant breakfast. Such as the belief that all body builders are vain, egotistical and self-centered. Although this may hold true for a small percentage, it does not fit the MTSU body builder.
These men are intelligent and articulate individuals with varied interests. As the public's awareness has increased, so has the popularity of the sport. Much of this can be credited to Arnold Schwarzenegger, perhaps the best known exponent of body building. Schwarzenegger has helped to make body building a legitimate sport. Today there is more exposure ana recognition for the body builder.
Pat Hannon says, "thanks to that, the public understands the sport of body building better. There could be a schedule conflict, but then again. Let's see — do I have enough money with my grant to cover this? Channel 5 needs me. Warrior of the Pacific. I don't know what I believe. I'll be home by Christmas Eve. Rutherford and V. Women in Business it's about time! Madam Chairman. Clothing and Man: Monday, Wednesday, Friday Books for Children, Books for Young People. Books for Adults. Nashville is close. Role playing? Attila the Hun. Thank God the Bicentennial is over.
Problems of Minority Groups. Primitive Technologies and Patterns of Survival. Opryland here I come! Biology Shirley Walker Lewisburg, Tenn. Sociology Above: Brenda Blanton Unionville. Agriculture John Bliven Memphis, Tenn. Bailey Pricilla Baker Margo Banks! Final figures are unavailable because of late regis- trants, but Cliff Gillespie, Dean of Admission and Records, said that "with students added on Wed- nesday and Thursday, we'll probably have over 9, Gillespie expressed concern over the fact that the number of returning students has dropped off.
New stu- dents entering the graduate schools increased by 38 percent, from to Transfer students, mostly upperclassmen, increased by 2. According to the dean, "we felt that if we showed restraint that this thing would simply cease of its own accord. On Monday night, university police surrounded I Dorm to await the return of male students on a midnight panty raid, Shewmake said. No jocks, just rocks Residents of two male dorms greeted some "jock raiders" last night with a hail of rocks and bottles, putting a quick end to the second such raid in a week.
Despite the cool temperatures outside, at least nine girls assembled at Cummings Hall and made the short dash to H and I halls in a female version of the tradi- tional panty raid.
Philadelphia Record Photograph Morgue
Instead of jocks, the girls found themselves dodg- ing an assortment of objects being thrown at them. Two girls were drenched by a bucket of water thrown by H Hall residents. A panty raid started forming a few minutes later near Clement Hall. About 15 males had gathered for a raid on Gracy Hall, but they scattered when a Univer- sity Police car arrived on the scene. Clair Hendrikson, of the university police, "is that people don't want to walk from the Greenland and High Rise parking lots.
The problem comes when commuters park in spaces designated for dorm residents. Parking tickets written Thursday included a notation that spaces were available in these lots. There are only 1, to 1, spaces available for dorm residents. It will be about a month before it is known if this is enough. In addition, three other students had their IDs pulled for participation in a "drinking party" by the campus police force and Associate Dean of Students Ivan Shewmake.
No charges have been formally filed, according to Shewmake, and "there won't be until some determination is made as to who exactly should and should not be charged because some ada- mantly deny engaging in anything," Shewmake added. Then some adjudication will take place. Wednesday, according to campus police reports, a call was received at the station complaining of a "drinking party" in a dorm room at Smith Hall.
Within minutes, about six officers had con- verged on the scene to break up the "party. One of the students acknowledged beer-drink- ing in his room, but said he knew of nothing else. I've never seen the water pipe before. However, the photographer refused. In a conversation with Joy Heath, ASB Speaker of the House, Scarlett learned that the word "staff" is used frequently to fill in the column in the schedules where the teacher's name should be listed. The Presi- dent's office contacted the office of academic affairs and requested that the departments list the teachers of the respective courses and eliminate the use of "staff.
Scarlett, said that the schedules that had already been received from the departments were returned and they were requested to fill in the teachers' names. Only in cases of graduate assistants and other una- voidable situations will the word "staff" be used. Rebecca Hampton of the office of academic affairs said that the class schedules had been received from the departments and that the Spring S sched- ules were being printed. The matter of the use of "staff" in MTSU schedules was brought up a few weeks ago when Heath announced that she would sponsor a resolution to have the word "staff" eliminated.
The All-Sports Championship is based on points given for placing in cross country, football, basketball, baseball, golf, tennis and outdoor track. As can be quickly assumed, the school that earns the All-Sports Championship has in a sense earned the respect of having the best all-Round athletic program. After second division finishes in cross country and football, the Blue Raiders began to make their move with a second place finish in basketball, baseball, golf, tennis and track. The baseball team took the divisional title and second place in the conference to keep the ball rolling.
Patty's golfers finished second as did the up-and-coming tennis team. But the big boost was in track where Dean Hayes and his group of jumpers and runners whizzed their way to the conference title and put Middle Tennessee in the driver's seat for its first All-Sports Championship. Western Kentucky never gave up and dogged the Blue Raiders down to the wire finishing in second place two points back. Below, L. The team was led by Mike Moore of Chattanooga, who compiled an season record and was named the O. Moore pitched 79 Vk innings and had a 2.
He also had 50 strikeouts, walked 39 batters and pitched a no-hitter against Milligan College, which the Raiders won He also pitched a three-hitter in M. Centerfielder Danny Moore led the team in batting with a. He also collected more hits than anyone else on the team, 43, and led the Raiders in triples with five. First baseman John Weathers led the club in homeruns with 10 — a new school record — and R. After winning the division title, the Raiders hoped to repeat as conference champions and win a spot in the regional playoffs. But this year Morehead's Eagles turned the tables and beat the Raiders and in the best of three series.
In heading for their first-ever championship, the Raiders went undefeated. Five first place finishes at the O. A week earlier they took first place in the Tennessee Intercollegiate games in Memphis, beating Austin Peay, Memphis State and other Tennessee schools.
As a fitting honor, Coach Hayes was named the O. At the championship meet, DoDoo took first place in the triple jump, Russell Holloway won the meter intermediate hurdles, Harrison Salame finished first in the discus, Skeikh Faye took top honors in the long jump and the one mile relay team of Larry Cotton, David Robinson, Ed Stegall and J. Musgrove tied an O. The third place finish was well above what many experts figured the Raiders would do, and it came despite several injuries which hampered MTSU in key matches throughout the season.
But under Coach LaLance, the scrappy team put together an season and took second place in the OVC in what was to have been a 'rebuilding year. Australian Peter Heffernan and Chris Baker in the regular season picked up confer- ence honors as the best number two doubles team. MTSl' The TSU Tigers recovered a fumble in the end zone for the first score of the game. And if that wasn't enough, the Tigers intercepted a Mike Robinson pass and returned it 67 yards for the second score.
The crowd started wondering if this was going to be one of those years. The Raiders broke their scoring drought with two first quarter TD's on runs of eight and one yard. But the Eagles countered with two second quarter TD's to tie the score at the half. Morehead jumped out to a point lead in the third quarter before the Raiders came back with a touchdown to close the margin to three. Neither team was able to score in the fourth quarter and the clock ran out after MTSU missed a first down by inches deep in Eagle territory.
If ever there was a time for a morale-boosting win, it was at Morehead. Things got no better the next weekend in Chattanooga, where the Mocs massacred the Blue Raiders to avenge last year's upset in Murfreesboro. No victories, four defeats and the season nearing the half-way point.
The dejected Raiders returned home to somehow prepare for the invasion of the Colonels from Eastern Kentucky — the defending OVC champs and the pre-season conference favorites. How in the world could a team knock off the pre- season pick to win the VC? The answer is easy, if you have a player who can walk on water, and tonight MTSU did. Mike Moore. In a raging downpour, the powerful senior fullback rambled, darted and glided for two TD's and a total of yards.
The Raiders trailed at the half and deep into the fourth quarter. But then came what was probably the biggest play of the season.
The whole 100 yards — and sometimes the end zones, too.
MTSU had the ball on its own one-yard line with the rain pouring and the clock ticking down from Jeff Shockley split wide left. Robinson drops back. Shockley had it 56 yards downfield and suddenly the Raiders had it first and 10 on the Colonels' Six plays later Robinson scored from four yards out. Then the Raiders flew into Newark, Delaware, with hopes for the intersectional contest, only to be crushed , the worst MTSU defeat in years. But once again, the downtrodden Raiders bounced back, this time beating Austin Peay, the eventual OVC champion, by a score on the Governors' home field in Clarksville.
But the Bucs in their Mini-dome brought the Raiders back down to earth with a from behind win. Could a team get fired-up for the last game when the best they could do would be to tie the record of the past two years? But MTSU did, at least for three quarters.
It was a beautiful, sunny November day with nearly 8, fans on hand. The first quarter went scoreless with only Tech threatening to score. MTSU's other Mike Robinson, the team's kicker, put his toe to good use in the second quarter, booting the Raider's into the lead with a 39 — and 54 — yard field goal. The yarder set a new school record and gave MTSU a surprising half time lead.
Robinson returned to the turf in the third quarter to increase the lead to with a yard field goal. Raiders ahead at the end of three quarters But it didn't and in the last 10 minutes of the game the Golden Eagles threw their offensive machine into gear and ran up three TD's to take a win. The season was over for the seniors, just beginning for the underclassmen.
Unfortunately, had more downs than ups. Coach Dean Hayes was not upset with the finish consid- ering the injuries during the season. The biggest blow came when veteran Dennis Votava injured his back and missed most of the season. There were a few bright spots though, like the David Lipscomb Invitational where Middle Ten- nessee took first place with Raider harrier Gary Perry taking top honors in the individual compe- tition.
In the Bradshaw Invitational, MTSU placed second among thirteen other schools with Perry again leading the way for the Raiders with a second place finish. It was a long season for the Raider harriers as they huffed and puffed their way through a few dual meets on whatever healthy legs they could find. Never has the team had its own fulltime coach, but this year Sandy Neal women's tennis coach was given the duties of coaching the volleyball squad and went into the job with a lot of vigor.
The squad, consisting of only nine players, was even more enthusiastic about their game. The highlight of the season was winning the Austin Peay Invitational Tournament. The schedule once again included old standbys like Tennessee Tech is there a sport we don't play them in? Coach Neal's first year and seniors Amy Donahue M. But, as in the past, his main goal was to get a wrestler into the finals of a big tournament. Early in the season, injuries took a heavy toll dampening the outlook a bit. They key loss was senior Pat Simp- son at the pound weight class. Veteran David Scott was lost with student teaching duties.
With this depleted roster, Connell concentrated even more on the tournaments. Last year there were a few pushovers in Vanderbilt, Maryville College and Lambuth College, but no more as a few small schools named Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri and Alabama joined the lineup of foes.
One old nemesis, Tennessee Tech remained and once again edged M. Jones had sought Sarver's removal before the season began, and although Pi-esident Scarlett gave the coach a temporary reprieve in November, she got the word as the season was beginning that her tenure as women's basketball coach had ended. Liz Hannah tossed in some long range bombs to lead the way with 20 points. Christopher's Hospital for Children; Wetherill, W. Freehafer, Carl R. Freeman, Eldridge J. French, Charles M. French, J. French, Martha G. Girard Rittenhouse - former Harriet Holder - now Mrs.
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