Thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal behavior of the rPP and hybrid composites was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis TGA.
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The results of the TGA thermographs of the samples are shown in figure 1 , where two main decomposition peak areas can be seen. With the increased CF content, the decomposition value of the hybrid composites was enhanced. It is known that PP degrades around this temperature. In addition, after the final decomposition temperature, the residual mass amount in the hybrid composites increased with the increase in the CF rate Mallick , Paiva et al. Figure 1. TGA results of rPP and hybrid composites.
Table 3 shows the mean mass loss rate of the hybrid composites and Scots pine control after exposure to white-rot Trametes versicolor and brown-rot Coniophora puteana fungi for 16 weeks. In general, the mass loss rate was very limited in the hybrid composites, while that of the control samples Scots pine was found to be very high. These results demonstrated that the decay activity was acceptable for test conditions. The mass loss rate decreased in all hybrid composites with the addition of CF.
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Previous literature has indicated that wood or natural fiber polymer composites are not fully protected against fungal attack. Composites with higher wood flour or fiber content in particular exhibit increasing mass loss. Due to less encapsulation, increasing the rate of wood flour or natural fiber in polymer composites causes poor moisture resistance and this leads to greater decay susceptibility Morris and Cooper , Verhey and Laks , Clemson and Ibach Similar results were observed in the current study. The SF ratio negatively affected the fungal resistance of the hybrid composites.
It is accepted that CF is more durable against moisture and fungi degradation than SF. Studies have reported that water absorption decreases in hybrid composites using CF Thwe and Liao , Samal et al. Therefore, in this study, increasing the CF rate resulted in hybrid composites which were more resistant to fungi.
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Table 3. Based on the results of this study, the following facts were observed. The flexural and tensile properties of the hybrid composites were increased with the addition of CF.
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From the results it can be concluded that the hybrid composites exhibited better biological performance than the SF composites. The addition of CF improved the thermal stability of the hybrid composites. The thermal decomposition values of the hybrid composites were enhanced with increased CF content. Abu, B. Lignocellulose-based hybrid bilayer laminate composite. Part 1: studies on tensile and impact behavior of oil palm fiber-glass fiber- reinforced epoxy resin. J Compos Mater ASTM D American Society for Testing and Materials.
West Conshohocken, PA. Bajracharya, R. Materials and Design Caulfield, D. Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites. London, New York, Singapore, p.
Clemson, C. Effects of processing method and moisture history on laboratory fungal resistance of wood-HDPE composites.
Forest Prod J 54 4 EN Test method for determining the protective effectiveness against wood destroying basidiomycetes. Determination of the toxic values.
Introduction to wood and natural fiber composites
European Committee for Standardization, Brussels. Haneefa, A. Indicula, M.
Douglas D. Du kanske gillar. Inbunden Engelska, Spara som favorit. Skickas inom vardagar. These fibers often contribute greatly to the structural performance of the plant and, when used in plastic composites, can provide significant reinforcement. Below is a brief introduction to some of the natural fibers used in plastics. More detailed information can be found elsewhere. Although natural fibers have been used in composites for many years, interest in these fibers has waned with the development of synthetic fibers such as glass and carbon fibers.
However, recently there has been a resurgence of interest, largely because of ecological considerations, legislative directives, and technological advances.
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One of the largest areas of recent growth in natural fiber plastic composites is the automotive industry, particularly in Europe, where the low density of the natural fibers and increasing environmental pressures are giving natural fibers an advantage. Most of the composites currently made with natural fibers are press-molded although a wide range of processes have been investigated. Flax is the most used natural fiber excluding wood in the European automotive industry, most of which is obtained as a by-product of the textile industry .
However, other natural fibers such as jute, kenaf, sisal, coir, hemp, and abaca are also used.